The business enterprise has evolved dramatically over the past 100 years. Many business professionals claim that traditional accounting practices have not evolved and no longer support modern operations. This has most clearly been demonstrated in manufacturing, where manufacturers have moved from batch processing to single-piece flow processing, a result of applying “lean” principles perfected in the Toyota Production System. Lean operations have now taken root in most industries. Healthcare, service, construction, government, and countless other industries successfully apply lean concepts to eliminate waste and get more from fewer resources. So what are progressive finance and accounting professionals to do with the conflict between traditional accounting practices and modern lean operations at odds The notion of “lean accounting” seeks to address this problem.